U.S. International Relations
U.S. International Relations
Currently, the international cooperation is the key to establishment of effective financial, political, cultural and economic relations with countries all over the world. Nowadays, the United States strives for establishing foreign relationships with such post-industrial countries as China and Russia. However, there is controversy regarding their policies, as well as positive contributions such relations might have for the economic and political development of the USA. Regarding Russia and China, it is difficult to define cooperation with which country is more beneficial for the U.S. government and citizens. Currently, the difficulty consists in the complex relationship of the United States with both parties. In particular, the U.S. government cannot reach agreement with Russia due to its aggressive behavior towards Ukraine. American-Chinese relations are also under the threat due to the military activities and plans of the United States. Nonetheless, China is still more important to the USA national interests than Russia due to the overt aggression displayed by the latter, as well as new possibilities that China opens in terms of trade relations and economic sanctions.
Recently, the United States has a disagreement with Chinese government in terms of war planning and initiation of military activities, as well as sea and air confrontations. The General Secretary of Chinese Communist Party in Beijing Xi Jinping, alongside with the President of the United States Barack Obama, reached a consensus regarding the notification of the other side of military activities, as well as considering development of rules and principles of military encounters in the sea and the air. The U.S. deputy national security advisor Ben Rhode assured that they do not plan to escalate the conflict between the two countries. On contrary, they were planning to enhance the trade and political alliance between the two countries. Nonetheless, the tensions are still high due to the Chinese increased military budget and due to the American’s attempt to commit a high percentage of military equipment in the Pacific region, being a part of their strategy of rebalance. Apparently, as Pillsbury states, the genuine reason for military expansion and integration of China into war planning was caused by the U.S. government’s willingness to share military information with China.
Not so long ago, the Chinese President Hu Jintao and the U.S. President Barack Obama met the United States. The statement they agreed on was confined to the development of “a positive cooperative, and comprehensive U.S.-China relationship” (Kissinger, 2012). Both governments confirmed their commitment regarding their principle concerning the perspectives on prosperous and strong development of Chinese society at a global level with the help of the United States. In response, Chinese government would make everything possible to ensure American-Asian cooperation, promoting stability, peace and prosperity. In fact, the two latter principles are the major underpinnings of the USA national interest and, therefore, such cooperation promised to be more efficient and beneficial for the both parties involved. A cooperative strategic framework undermines the preconceptions of the both parties involved. Specifically, the cultural and economic differences should be reconciled in case both China and the USA are planning to strengthen their foreign relationships. It should be admitted that both governments have many misconceptions to work on, but the existence of such difference can be taken as an advantage by both parties. To be more exact, the American government could enter the Asian market more effectively in case it has an established partnership with China. The latter can also benefit from the cooperation by entering the international market. In such way, both parties will be satisfied as soon as the cultural and economic conflicts are blurred.
The alliance with China can disarm the Russian government that plans to tighten its relations in response to the imposition of sanction on the part of the European Union and the United States. Currently, the Russian government strives to establish cooperation with adjacent Asian countries and with China in particular to receive support and enhance its military capacity. Besides, it is an alternative way for Russian to reduce the consequences of sanctions imposed by the United States and by the European Union. In the beginning of the last year the Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed an agreement on cooperation with China regarding gas supply for the purpose of securing the world’s top energy fuel (Clackson, 2014). The agreement, however, undermines the economic stability in Russia due to the potential decrease of customers in Europe. Furthermore, the alliance is also a threat to the United States. Therefore, the U.S. government should seek ways to arrange the relationship with China to ensure peace between the two and to weaken Russian military strength. Although the U.S.-NATO alliance is perceived as the major aggressor, one should not ignore the fact of Russian aggressive policy in the Ukrainian crisis.
In fact, the escalating crisis in Ukraine should become the turning point for the United States, compelling the government to re-examine its intentions and plans for the future in the sphere of foreign relationships. Additionally, due to such actions in response to Ukraine, the attitude of the American government has been changed significantly due to the Russian-Ukrainian dispute. Furthermore, the escalation of the conflict has generated the anti-Western moods and behaviors grown in Russian, defining the role and nature of the U.S. policies at a global level. Specifically, the major challenge for the United States is to search for the path to protect its allies and to introduce shifts to Russian attitudes and behavior without the overt display of assault regarding instability in Ukraine. Although the U.S.-Russian relationships are important for sustaining a peaceful and stable relationship in the world, current situation does not allow the American government to negotiate about Russian aggression. To minimize Russian power and military capacity, the establishment of new U.S.-Chinese relationships would be a great alternative.
The reasons to establish cooperation with China are also underlined by the differences in American and Russian vision on sustaining security. To begin with, while many Russian authorities pay more attention to the growth of Chinese power to strengthen its security level, the United States should also seek a closer relationship with China to neutralize the aggression on the part of the latter. Further, Russian strategic framework is confined to the belief that that Russian prestige, honor and national security will rely on imposing strict limits on the policies and sovereignty of adjacent countries. In this respect, Putin’s decision to establish alliance with China will not be beneficial for the latter. At this point, the U.S. government should take advantage and persuade the Chinese government that their cooperation will be more effective and mutually beneficial.
The difference in approaches to proliferation makes Russian and the United States incompatible in terms of international cooperation. The two countries have different outlooks on the event in Iraq and non-proliferations attitudes. Although both countries are willing to possess greater influence in the Middle East, Russia has more reasons for establishing good relationship with Iran, which can also have a negative attitude to the United States. As a result, the development of new relationships between Russia and China may bear a sophisticated nature.
The American government should also take into consideration the Chinese national and commercial interests to understand what steps should be taken to improve their international relationship and deepen cooperation between the Western and Eastern world. It should be admitted that China has tremendously increased its potential and influence at the international level and, therefore, the future of the U.S.-Chinese relationships should also be promising. According to Zhou (2011), “…mutual understanding is at least partially based on a common value system. The U.S. remains the leader of the existing global order. The core values of modern democracy, such as individual rights, justice, equality and common good, are the cornerstone of Western societies that guides their governments in making foreign policy” (pp. 635-636). Certainly, both countries should find a compromise to create long-term cooperation and exchange experience in economic, social and political activities.
It should be admitted that competition remains one of the major conditions for sustaining economic and financial independent. At the same time, connectivity and mutual dependence still play a crucial role in generating behavior of participants, making them to evaluate foreign affairs. In such context, Al-Rodhan (2013) explains, “the nature of the U.S.-Chinese relations subscribes to this description if only one considers the predominant dimensions of these relations: one country predominantly borrows, while the other lends, one produces, the other consumes” (n. p.). However, ideological incompatibility and lack of trust can undermine the success of new relations. Furthermore, emotionality of such relationships can generate foreign-policy debates. The point is that both Chinese and American cultures are significantly different. In particular, the United States considers itself as the promoter of common values, whereas China is proud of its long history and high-context culture, synthesized with the perception of humiliating Western ideology. Nonetheless, such misconceptions could be eliminated during the globalization process, as well as the attempt of both cultures to unit for mutual benefits.
The complicated nature of the relationship between the United States and China was explained by previous confrontations and tensions between the countries due to the ambiguous policy on the part of the American government. In particular, the government was more interested in supporting relations with Russia due to more potential and benefits it had for the national security. However, such relationships were not presented in one direction because the United States was also interested in the cooperation with the Chinese authorities. Therefore, Cheng (2009) presents a logical explanation why China was more interested in strengthening relationships with Russia. Currently, the aggressive policy of the Russian government can increase the chances for the United States to improve interaction and partnership with the Eastern world by establishing effective political, commercial and cultural relationships with China. Additionally, Russel (2014) also provides the analysis of the U.S.-China relations to prove that there is evident progress in promoting fruitful relationships between the two powerful states. Specifically, China’s economic and political growth has a positive influence on its increased role in the region due to the economic influence of the country on the world’s market in general, which could also be beneficial for the American economy. Therefore, the countries may experience mutual benefits from their relations.
To prove the appropriateness and success of the U.S.-Chinese relationships, Allison, G., and Blackwill (2013) have conducted the interview with Lee Kuan Yew, former Singapore Prime Minister. According to his point of view, the competition between the two powerful states is inevitable, but there is little probability of the emerging conflict, which can result in military intervention. In fact, the Prime Minister explains, “I think it will be subdued because the Chinese need the United States, need U.S. markets, U.S. technology, need to have students going to the United States to study the ways and means of doing business so they can improve their lot” (Yes, in Allison & Blackwill, 2013). Similarly, the national security can also be ensured by the United States in case they will cooperate with the closest neighbor of Russia, which is currently the major aggressor in the world.
In general, it should be stressed that the new mode of relationships could be ensured for American and Chinese governments. Specifically, Zongyou (2014) agrees, “despite the different views concerning disputes in the China seas and maritime and air surveillance in the EEZ, China and the U.S. hold more than 90 institutionalized bilateral interactions annually, an unusually high number even by the standards of the U.S. and its close allies”. Therefore, the attention should still be paid to the analysis of the new possibilities because the reasons for sustaining such international relations seem to be more valid than the reasons for breaking the alliance.
In conclusion, it should be stressed that the U.S. international policies can benefit more if the government will strive to continue building trustful relationship with China rather than with Russia for several reasons. To begin with, the current situation with Ukrainian conflict proves Russia’s overt aggressive policy, which can negatively affect the reputation of the American government in the world. Second, the cooperation with China will decrease the chances of military intervention of the state to the United States due to the recent gas supply agreement between Russia and China. Finally, multiple research studies prove the evident progress and potential of the alliance between two powerful economies. Besides, the Chinese government itself realizes that the cooperation with the American authorities would be more beneficial for them than the alliance with Russia. In general, the confrontation between Russia and China could be decreased, as well.