The Effect of Young People Studying
The Effect of Young People Studying Abroad and afterwards Coming Home to Work
The contemporary world is the world of fast changes and globalization that is instantly expanding. More and more people, as well as whole countries and nations, tend to becoming more open to different cultures and countries, which, definitely, is a positive thing. The contemporary culture tends to be the world culture, which absorbs the concepts referring to the world changing tendencies and values more than national identity. This phenomenon is the result of different factors.
First of all, the political reason is the prevalence of democratic worldview, causing the reduction of distances between people, in reference to their worldviews, religion, culture, nationality, or sexual orientation etc. Secondly, the economy of each country highly depends on the economies of other countries. The economical interaction within the whole planet is, probably, the most essential reason of globalization. Many spheres involve more and more international links. Technological breakthrough gave the possibility to optimize all the processes of communication, so that, nowadays, if a company’s office is located in the USA, there are no obstacles to hold conferences with the workers in China, especially, for marketing or IT fields.
Finally, distant education online or education abroad has become one of the significant reasons of globalization. Students who move to the other country to get education are the main subjects of further globalization processes, especially if they come back home to work. They bring their traditions and specific culture to another community with an aim to change it. Simultaneously, they absorb another culture and traditions, get different experiences, learn new concepts through the language and informal communication, build a new worldview and combine it with their own national identity. By the time they graduate, they would have been different from those who they could become, if they had lived and studied in their native environment. With all the gained fresh worldview, they come back and bring innovations to their motherland, while advancing the process of globalization.
This essay reveals the main reasons why high school graduates choose studying abroad to come back to their country of origin, and what effects on the political, economical, social, national and psychological areas this phenomenon has now and may possibly have in future. In addition, it shows the advantages, such as economical spur and bringing fresh professional skills in the countries, and disadvantages, such as Western culture and ideas impact on the religion and traditions of the foreign country. In order to depict diversity of effects, at first, general effects will be demonstrated based on the information about China and African countries. To illustrate concrete effects, Kuwait will be analyzed in further paragraphs.
Most high school graduates all over the world prefer to move to another country or at least, another city for attending a university (British Council, 2015). The most obvious reason is the quality of educational facilities in the countries with lower level of living. However, many prospective students from Europe, the USA prefer moving from their country as well, which is the result of wider possibilities and prospective of getting different experience, learn different culture and become socialized not in a shallow community, but in the world. Representatives of the Third world countries move abroad, in order to build a better life beginning with the education and proceeding with finding a job there.
Speaking about the Eastern countries, such as China, India, Indonesia, the UAE, or Kuwait, the economy of these countries is rapidly developing, while the educational system often lacks high quality staff, technical support, and educational management, which go behind the economical and financial areas. That is the reason why enrollees of fast developing countries enter universities abroad to study not only a particular profession, but to learn the different way of living, which is essential for building a successful business and raise the economical influence of their native land on the world.
Despite the advantages of studying abroad, there is always a negative side of any phenomena. The graduates may suffer from different kinds of discrimination, such as religious, racist, or national. As a result, some of them can, particularly, lose their national identity and come back home with complexes of inferiority. Anyway, their worldview absorbs different concepts, which can be diverse, according to their personality. The latter one will definitely change and become different from their contemporary’s personalities who stayed in the native place (Uncg.edu, 2015).
Although, there are many challenges of studying abroad at the point of accepting new culture and coping with foreign language, as well as at the point of returning back home, such phenomena is crucial for the economical growth of many Eastern countries. Speaking about Africa, 70% of young people, who study abroad, plan to come back to their native country. Moreover, “9 out of 10 African doctoral candidates, studying abroad, plan to work in their country of origin” (Boampong, 2013). This is a positive aspect of the migrant students’ occurrence, because the developing countries need skilled graduates and professionals in different areas of the establishment.
If referring to the Chinese phenomena, there is even a special notion for the graduates who study abroad to come back home as skilled professionals. These young people are called “Haigui” (New York Times, 2015). The presence of a special concept in the language reflects the fact that this phenomenon is wide-spread and influences many life aspects. Study abroad for Chinese students is a mass activity, which brought the country to the economical and technological growth after their return, but, at the same time, it brought in some problems, such as western ideas and culture impact on the Chinese traditions and mentality of the Chinese people.
Generally speaking, there are pros and cons of studying abroad and coming back home for each country. In addition, students of each country have different reasons to do so and come up with different effects for their country of origin. However, there are many common factors, as well. For instance, Kuwait is one of the richest fast developing countries, but most students tend to study abroad. This means that powerful potential of the country is not always the guaranty of high quality educational system.
Kuwait faces many problems in educational system nowadays. According to Dr Fahad Amer Al-Azmi (Kuwait Times, 2013), there is not enough attention being paid by the government to higher education in Kuwait. Students suffer from overcrowded academic institutions: “the number of students in each hall average at 140 and sometimes reaches 160” (Amer Al-Azmi, 2013). Another issue is “closed classes”. As a result of the huge amount of students per class, young people cannot take more than 3 classes per term. This lowers their prospective education and professional skills, on one hand, and makes them study for a longer period of time, on the other hand.
To solve the above mentioned problem, government should build more universities, but here comes another issue – lack of qualified staff. All these issues make prospective students not wait for government until they solve the problem, but pass the required exams and enter educational institutions abroad. According to the statistics of the United States Embassy in Kuwait in 2010, “there are Kuwaiti students in 45 states and the top 10 receiving states for both undergraduate and graduate Kuwaiti students are: California, Florida, Colorado, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Virginia/Ohio, Arizona, Oregon, Wisconsin, and Texas” (Press Releases, 2010).
The United States tend to be the country which hosts the biggest amount of international students, especially from the Middle East and Africa. The US is interested in hosting students, as this can help in developing intercultural and economical affairs between the US and fast growing countries with prospective powerful economical sector.
According to Allan E. Goodman, President and CEO of the New York-based Institute of International Education,
The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world. Active engagement between U.S. and international students in American classrooms provides students with valuable skills that will enable them to collaborate across cultures and borders to address shared global challenges in the years ahead (Press Releases, 2010).
So, the effect of hosting students from Kuwait for the US is providing further international cooperation with this country, which has the same result for Kuwait. Coming from abroad, skilled students oftentimes face the challenges of the Kuwaiti economical sector with the fresh view at the administration and management, bring in new technologies etc. However, there are many issues within the country, connected to the bureaucracy and governments’ financial funding of some sectors.
It is well known, that Kuwait is one of the most powerful countries in the world in oil industry, but other sectors of economy, policy, education, etc. do not receive enough attention. That is why, studying business administration and management by Kuwaiti students abroad can provide positive changes to the country.
The situation is different for graduates who are prospective private sector workers. As the local universities cannot suggest skilled and highly competent workers, the employers prefer migrant workers, rather than those Kuwaitis that studied abroad and returned home to find a job. Such graduates often lack in professionalism and education level, which can be a result of not being conscientious enough, while studying abroad.
This drives them to unemployment, while migrants from other countries often occur to be more professional and experienced, and, as a result, more needed for employers, even thought they may not know the language or culture. In addition, migrants are paid lower wages than the Kuwaiti citizens, especially, if they work illegally (Al-Monitor, 2014).
Another effect of studying abroad and coming back to the country of origin for the Kuwaiti is their marginalization in many ways. They may occur to be left outsiders within their own country because of their particular difference in a way of thinking, their being influenced by the Western culture and ideas, which are unfamiliar and unacceptable for the local employers, while migrants are seen as the representatives of different culture a prior and do not provoke misunderstanding in cultural or social communication within the company.
The best possible effect of such students could be using their skills on practice and establishing new educational institutions in their country, where they may share their gained knowledge with prospective students. Such a situation would lead to the development of educational system within the country, and to the better international cooperation of educational institutions.
As a result, education would become a smaller problem for the government and the country would be provided with more qualified graduates. In addition, such a use of Kuwaiti abroad-graduates would cause the globalization emergency in the country, which could make it more open to the world, on one hand, and more convenient for its own citizens, on the other hand, as there would not be any foreign interjection into the educational system, but the healthy usage of the foreign experience.
To conclude, there are both positive and negative effects on the country, provided by its citizens who left their motherland in order to get education and came back to work in their home country. Positive effects will possibly improve the national educational system; presence of skilled professional graduates, ready to work and raise the economy of their country; opportunity for the country to become more open to the world and to become a part of better international cooperation with other countries; breaking free from the cultural and communication borders for the whole nations; development of tolerance and democratic principals all over the world.
However, there are also negative effects of this phenomenon. These are marginalization of graduates on their returning back to the country of origin, which can mean they are not being attractive for the employers who prefer traditions to innovations; negative impact of Western culture and ideas on the national identity; negative influence of globalization processes, such as loosing religious, cultural, national mentality identity.
Despite all the possible negative effects, studying abroad provides students with much bigger life experience and ability to survive, become resilient and resistant, at the same time, and approbate their personal qualities in the face of various challenges, which is essential in this world of globalization and the increasing speed of changes.