Preschool Development of Children in England
England is a country with rich experience in the field of training and development of preschool children. Goals of preschool development of English kids include social and intellectual development, establishment of succession in family upbringing, as well as aesthetic and physical progress. Early child’s nurture is a special, independent link in the English educational system. The paper will discuss aspects of preschool development of children in England, influence of Piaget’s theory, and the role of nannies.
Piaget’s teachings play an essential role in the formulation of methods of preschool children’s development and outline the influence of environmental protection, child-adult interaction, stages of child’s development, and the need to reflect individual differences in programs. Planning pedagogical work in England involves activities, which correspond to the age and stage of the development of the child, taking into account the level of his or her thinking and self-centeredness, and contribute to the formation of abstract thinking, namely, problem solving, decision-making, and action with numbers. Direct experience and manipulative activities with subjects are essential for the development of internal mental processes of the child, especially thinking (Başkale, Bahar, Başer, & Ari, 2009). Therefore, children are armed with specific material means (for example, counting sticks for fostering adding skills), which help in the formation of children’s abstract thinking. English preschools provide an elaborate and structured training and developing space, which allows children to explore, experiment, plan and make decisions. It is important to observe the child and take into account the obtained data in the construction of the educational process.
Piaget’s theory formed the basis of the key methods of reinforcing children’s development in England. The teachings by Piaget on child development by stages, readiness to perform certain functions, and the formation of knowledge and skills became fundamental principles of developmentalism (Başkale, 2009). The concept of consistent child’s development is related to features of the natural passage of steps leading to the formation of logical thinking. Developmentalism is a theoretical basis for educational practice that is used by nannies in England (Kwon, 2002). It is relevant to individual and age levels of development of children. The concept recognizes an active part of the child in the educational process. The purpose of child’s development in England is expanding the horizons of ideas and understanding of each individual, disclosure of potential opportunities, development of self-regulation power, independence, and critical thinking. According to Kwon (2002), the basic principles of classic early child’s nurture in England are child-centered in opposite to established teacher-directed and subject-centered methods of secondary education. The child is learning, exploring the world and testing his or her knowledge in practice. Wall, Litjens, and Taguma (2015) state that play-based education, for example by the use of constructional materials and puzzles, is considered to be an extremely effective technique of strengthening child development. During a play, children reflect various situations. Therefore, Piaget’s ideas became rooted in English pedagogy aimed at the development of children of early age. Basing on the Piaget’s theory, English nannies focus on the process of developing child’s thinking. A crucial role in such development is played by the recognition of individual distinctions in developmental progress.
Nannies play a significant role in the preschool development of children in England. Many wealthy families in the Old World reasonably consider nannies, tutors, and governesses from the UK the best in their field. Such specialists are a combination of professionalism, which is based on excellent education, English manners, etiquette and classic English. In England, the aim of nanny’s work is primarily competent for a small child. Moreover, it is a calling and an ability to find a common language with the child as a person. Such work requires a particular set of personal characteristics and special education. It includes the development of child’s social skills, control over the compliance of child’s progress with the appropriate age category, etiquette training, and discipline in the initial setting of moral principles and values (“Pre-School,” n.d.). Nurseries help the child to socialize. It presents an important state in children’s development.
Kindergartens opened in England in the second half of the nineteenth century present another direction of the development of preschool children in the region (British Council, n.d.). The English curriculum includes discovering the world, creative expression, motor skills development, emotional and social development, numeracy, literacy, and language (British Council, n.d.). The number of children receiving free education is constantly increasing. The preschool educational system is built exclusively on the basis of child’s interests. It gives priority to care for the mental comfort of the child.
In conclusion, the key idea of preschool development in England consists in the fact that knowledge cannot be transferred to the child as a finished product by direct teaching. The introduction of a single program largely regulates and structures the educational process in preschool institutions in England. It becomes more child-focused and result-oriented in compliance with Piaget’s teachings. It strengthens the relationship with the school. In preschool development of children in England, carefully thought-out games are actively used as a training tool. There is a need for detailed planning of educational work that is based on everyday observations of children and program requirements. Because of the early development of children and early involvement in the process of training and education, the general level of education increases. Skills of the child, chances for further success in school and higher education will increase if the baby regularly acquires knowledge from an early age.