Marxism and Globalization
Marxist theory is one of the most important theories of the world politics. The theory is known as historical materialism. According to Marx, the actors are classes in the world, which is considered the capitalist economic system. Therefore, Marx considers relations between different classes as the base for the world politics. The whole world is divided into three main areas: core, semi-periphery, and periphery. At the same time, both semi-periphery and periphery have cores linked with the world’s economy. As for the core area, it consists of some periphery areas. Thus, according to Marx, global capitalism is a system of capitalist economic relations between countries of the different economic development.
According to Lacher (2006), Marx considers international relations as of secondary interest and agrees that “the importance of war in social life had declined since the Vienna Congress” (p. 46). In his Communist Manifesto, Marx states that both antagonisms and differences between various nations will vanish because of the development of the capitalist class, which will be expressed by freedom of commerce, the common market, standard mode of production and the life conditions. Working class and peasantry will improve their life conditions, and the capitalist society will develop. At the same time, the class society will continue its existence with private property and capitalist economic relations. As Lacher states, Marx considered “the more the universal interdependence of nations developed, the more the conflicts between states would be overshadowed by the struggles between the antagonistic classes of global capitalist society” (Lacher, 2006, p. 47). As a result, it will lead to the revolution in Germany and in the most developed countries of Europe, as Marx states in his works (Jay, 1984, p. 6). The private property will be abolished, and new classless society will emerge. At the end of his life, Marx came to the conclusion that the new society will be established with the help of economic and political reforms, and the main condition for the existence of such a society will be the abolishment of capitalism in the whole world. As Marx states, the communist society will not be built in one state in the capitalist world.
Lenin considered a war as the sole mean to start the world’s revolution for establishing communist society. He states “the elementary truth of Marxism that the victory of socialism requires the joint efforts of workers in a number of advance countries” (Lewin, p. 4). It explains the aim of International for uniting the working class of the world. Lenin believed that socialist revolution would emerge in one state, and it would be possible to build a new society there. According to Baylis, Lenin considers a war from the point of view of class struggle for emancipation of the oppressed working class. Thus, any war conductrf by any socialist state would be considered as a just war for liberation of oppressed classes, irrespective of the quantity of human deaths. Actually, Lenin considers a total war as the main tool for establishing communism in the world.
Marxism differs from Lenin’s theory in approach to establish the new society. Nowadays, Marx’s ideas of establishing a common society are studied in many institutions of the world. Furthermore, ideas of Gramsci and Hegel were adopted by the Welsh School of the Security Studies. Lenin’s ideas of equal rights and new free society were rejected because Lenin considered oppressed classes as a nation, but landlords, capitalists and managers were considered as enemies of a nation to be eliminated. Moreover, Lenin recognized the right of each nation on the self-determination, but the self-determination should be socialist that is, colonial or semi-colonial from the Soviet Union. As the result, such totalitarian regimes as Pol Pot’s, Kim Il-sung’s, Mao Zedong’s, and Stalin’s emerged in the world.