Job analysis refers to the process of identifying and determining the requirements and duties of a particular job, and the relative importance of the duties for the job. The Human Resources (HR) Department finds job analysis to be a useful foundation for making decisions concerning the assessment and selection of candidates (Heneman, Judge, & Kammeyer-Mueller, 2015). The success of an organization depends upon the performance of employees. In fact, job analysis involves various steps, such as understanding the job, identifying performance behavior, identifying essential competencies, identifying target performance level, determining experience, identifying special considerations, reviewing and finalizing, and using the results (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). Therefore, HR practice leaders consider job analysis as a significant characteristic of an effective and efficient human resources administration (Duncan, 2011). This paper will consider the following: job analysis methods, processes, and the sources it uses; essential functions of the position; recruitment resources; the selection resources for the position; and the use of job analysis process and the job description in other areas of HR.
Job Analysis Methods, Process, and Sources Used
The methods of job analysis involve the techniques that the analysts use to collect the information in the HRM (Sattar, Ahmad, & Hassan, 2015). I collected information for the job analysis using various methods, including interview, questionnaire, diary, and technical conference based on the availability and sensitivity of the information. Interview method involves face-to-face interaction between job analysts and employees or supervisors in order to gather the job analysis information (Heneman et al., 2015). I talked with the supervisors and the employees by asking them the questions concerning job at the workplace. In addition, I used a checklist of questions for collecting the job analysis information. The questionnaire method involves the use of questionnaires in order to gather job analysis information. The questionnaires contain a set of questions the employees should respond to. Some questions can be open-ended, while other questions are closed-ended (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). In fact, the diary method involves writing diaries of the employees’ daily job activities. The employees made entries of the incidents and major activities; then, I studied and summarized them. The technical conference method involved requesting the employees to attend a conference or seminar, during which I recorded the relevant information.
Job analysis process involves understanding the purpose of job analysis, identifying the position for the analysis, identifying required information, identifying the sources of information, choosing appropriate methods for collecting information, collecting the required information, and checking the accuracy of the information (Sattar et al., 2015). Moreover, it is important to understand the purpose of job analysis before identifying the required information. For instance, I conducted job analysis with the purpose of determining the job description for the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant. The identification of the position for the job analysis is necessary, since different positions constitute a variety of characteristics by requiring different information for the purpose of analysis. An effective job analysis requires the collection of relevant and useful information. The information that I collected included work-oriented activities, performance appraisal standard, personal attributes, job context, and employee oriented activities. I identified various sources of information, including employees, independent experts, and supervisors, non-human resources, job incumbents, job analysts, and job interview committee on determining the required information.
Essential Functions for the Position
Job analysis was helpful for making the decisions on the knowledge, skills, and abilities that represent the essential job functions for the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant (Torres, 2014). The decisions on the essential job functions of the position involved performing an essential analysis of the functions. The analysis involved identification of the essential job functions, the use of job description to an assessment of the essential functions, the determination of the employee’s present abilities in order to perform the essential functions (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). The identification of the essential job functions required the determination of the significance of the position by breaking the position down into individual tasks. The scope of the individual tasks helped in determining whether the position represents an essential function or a marginal one. I obtained input from the relevant people, who had enough experience in the job. The input was helpful in making the decisions concerning the knowledge, skills, and abilities that constitute the essential job functions.
The determination of the essential job function will also represent the basis for examining the consequences of removing the job function from the position. The job function will be essential if its removal from the position leads to an absolute destruction of the basic purpose of the position (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). However, the job function will be marginal if its removal from the position leads to an occasional inconvenience any other person can fix. Job descriptions were useful in supporting the assessment of essential job functions. The development of the job descriptions involved the objective and careful analysis of the position, the regular review of job descriptions, and elimination of ambiguous or vague items.
The companies should update and maintain job descriptions regularly in order to ensure elimination of ambiguous or vague items. The frequency of updating and maintaining job descriptions depends upon the frequency of employee selection and recruitment (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). If the employee selection and recruitment take place annually, the assessments of the job descriptions should take place every year with the aim of updating and maintaining the descriptions. The most current job descriptions are useful in finding the employees, who have the most relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities for the success of the organization (Heneman et al., 2015). The employees, who lack the required knowledge, skills, and abilities, will require additional training.
Actually, the recruitment resources can be external or internal sources depending on the place, where the employer finds the candidates with the most desirable qualities for the vacant position. The external sources of recruitment imply hiring individuals outside the organization. The company must analyze the vacant positions carefully before using the method that meets the requirements the best (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). The external sources of recruitment for the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant include media advertisement, e-recruiting, and casual callers. In addition, the most appropriate internal source of recruitment for the position is the promotion of highly talented and qualified employees.
Media advertisement has been the most common source of external recruitment, as the employers make advertisements in professional journals and newspapers by providing comprehensive details about the organization, the nature of the position, the qualifications required, the experience expected, and the skills needed. The individuals will perform the self-evaluation against the job requirements and create applications (Sattar et al., 2015). I preferred media advertisement because it helps in the acquisition of the most qualified candidates from a large pool of applicants. E-recruiting involves searching and screening the prospective candidates via the online job portals, which enable the job seekers to upload cover letters and resumes. The source of recruitment is also significant because it helps in the selection of the best candidates from the pool of applicants (Herbers, 2015). Casual callers refer to the job seekers, who go to the famous organizations casually and submit their job applications. The personnel department of the organization keeps the folder of casual callers’ applications. When the vacancy appears, the personnel department calls the applicants, who satisfy the job requirements. I preferred the casual caller for the position due to the chance to review the applications and call the most qualified candidates.
Promotion is the most appropriate source of internal recruitment, as employers offer the most qualified and talented employees to fill the vacant positions that carry higher prestige, higher responsibilities, and attractive remunerations (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). The employers can offer their employees of the organization to fill the vacant positions. Promotion is an appropriate source of internal recruitment because the management is aware of the candidate’s knowledge, skills, experience, and behavior thanks to the previous experience (Sattar et al., 2015). In fact, it is important to promote the individuals, who have been working in the organization, because they understand the organizational rules and regulations. Therefore, the organization may not experience problems with the candidates for the occupation of the new positions. The organizations can also use promotion as a strategy for motivating employees to improve their performance.
The selection of the recruitment tools depends on the position that new employees should fill. Such positions as Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant require highly qualified candidates, who have acquired significant amount of knowledge, skills, and experience (Torres, 2014). The positions require the selection of the employees from a large pool of candidates. Direct recruitment is among the most inappropriate sources of recruitment that I dismissed because it leads to the recruitment of unskilled workers. The company is less likely to get highly qualified employees to fill the positions of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant using direct recruitment.
Selection Resources for the Position
The appropriate selection resources for the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant include interviews, employment tests, and references. I have chosen interviews, since they are useful for the selection of candidates with the qualifications that match the job requirements. Actually, the interviews allow job candidates to show their determination and other positive attributes through self-expression (Sattar et al., 2015). Employment testing is another appropriate selection resource for ensuring that the new employees represent the most suitable candidates. For instance, testing individuals for Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant positions will be useful in order to determine if they possess such skills as software capability, typing speed, and mathematics. The reference also serves as an appropriate selection resource for the hiring department (Torres, 2014). The reference helps in understanding the performance of the potential candidates in their previous positions.
The selection tools for the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant included skills assessment, background check, and hiring manager interview. I have chosen skills assessment because the tool is appropriate for the jobs that require expertise in certain areas or technical skills needed to ensure that the candidates possess required knowledge, skills and experience (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). In fact, executive employees complete the test that gauges their personality and judgment. Background checks involve probing the history of the selected candidates based on the position. For instance, the position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant required a background investigation to focus on previous employment and criminal history of the candidate. I have chosen background checks because it satisfies the decision makers with the decisions made. Hiring manager interview is another appropriate selection tool useful for determining the suitability of a candidate. A face-to-face interview helps in determining the communication skills and the level of confidence of the candidate (Sattar et al., 2015). The position of Executive Secretary and Administrative Assistant requires employees to demonstrate excellent communication skills and confidence. Actually, I have found drug testing to be an inappropriate selection tool for the position because the employees do not operate machinery. Therefore, I have dismissed drug testing as a selection tool for the position.
Using Job Analysis Process and Resulting Job Description in other Areas of Human Resources
Job analysis process and job description are also useful in other areas of Human Resource, including Human Resource Development (HRD), Safety and Health, and Compensation and Benefits. For instance, skills assessment will be useful for HRB because of determining the employees, who need further training (Long, Xuan, Ismail, Rasid, & Kowang, 2014). In fact, highly qualified employees will increase the efficiency and productivity of the organizations. Drug testing will be useful for determining safety and health condition of the employees at the workplace. Drug-free individuals will be punctual and they will avoid accidents, when operating machinery. In addition, skill testing will be useful for determining compensation and benefits (Hollenbeck & Jamieson, 2015). An employer will promote highly qualified and competent employees, who will earn attractive remunerations.
In conclusion, job analysis helps employers to hire the employees, who have relevant knowledge, skills, and experience in various positions. Job analysis involves the use of various methods, processes, and resources, as the analysts determine job requirements. External and internal resources are useful in recruiting the candidates to occupy vacant positions. In addition, various selection resources and selections tools help in the recruitment of candidates based on the vacant positions available. Moreover, it is important to note that job analysis process and job description are also useful in other areas of Human Resources.