Individual Training Needs Assessment
Individual Training Needs Assessment
In today’s market conditions, organizations regularly invest in staff development. Now, professional training of workers faces a number of important issues arising from the need of enterprises to adapt to the market, modernization and conversion of production, the restructuring of employment and changes in the requirements to the quality of labor force. Staff development includes the following components: the development in order to meet the qualifications held by an employee (currently normative), development in order to meet future conditions and the individual development of each employee. Today, the presence of the mechanism that assesses and determines the need for individual training and development of employees is critically important for any organization.
Education is a specially organized, controlled process characterized by the interaction of coaches and employees aimed at the acquisition of knowledge and skills, the formation of outlook, the development of mental strength of employees, and consolidation of skills of self-education in accordance with the intended objectives. In order to put the qualification of employees of manufacturing companies in line with modern requirements, their training and development should be integrated into the overall personnel management system. Every employee must constantly take part in training programs in order to increase the effectiveness of their performance.
The data obtained by a variety of methods may help to analyze the quality of human resources of an enterprise (the so-called human resources audit) (Barbazette 2006). In determining the need for staff training, first of all, it is important to take into account objectives of the company and its prospective development plans defined by the top-level executives; information about the implementation of these plans and the problems arising from this articulated by middle managers; self-esteem of employees (Barbazette 2006).
Program of staff development should be focused on achieving the long-term goals of business development, and specialized training should address specific industrial, technological or organizational problems and improve the quality of employees performance of assigned to them functional tasks . Before the training, the need for it of each individual employee should be assessed. Heads of departments evaluate the skills of their subordinates on the following parameters: quality of work; labor productivity; availability of necessary skills and knowledge; adoption and implementation delegated to the head office (reliability); independence in fulfillment the functions (Sleezer & Russ-Eft 2014). On the basis of these assessments, the need for the development of certain competencies of the particular employee is determined. Employees also can rate their need for training. Answers to the special survey questions can help to specify the objectives and learning areas as well as assess the prospects of further translation of new knowledge in a particular department, clarify expectations regarding curriculum outcomes.
Staff development plan creates the conditions for mobility, motivation and self-control of employee as well as accelerates the process of adaptation of employee to changing production conditions. To be effective, the system of retraining and advanced training of personnel, quality and timely assessment of training needs appears to be a priority criterion of success of the process. Systematic analysis of the training needs of different categories of staff is necessary to determine which forms and methods of training will best serve the interests of the company. This analysis should be based on the company’s strategic objectives and tasks of the individual departments. If this work is not performed, the choice of programs for the training of various categories of staff is performed in the unorganized and chaotic way.
Disregard for the work on identifying the training needs of staff creates serious problems for the organization. It is forced to pay for education, which is sometimes unnecessary, distracting employees from their main job. As a result, instead of increasing the effectiveness of performance after the completion of training program, the organization risks getting a decline of interest in learning and development, and the reluctance of employees to think about their professional growth (Sleezer & Russ-Eft 2014).
The individual need for training of various categories of staff of the organization is defined by both the demands of work and / or the interests of the organization and the individual characteristics of workers. The need for training, the acquisition of new knowledge, and the development of certain skills is influenced by age, work experience, the level of abilities, particularly of motivation and other factors (Firdousi n.d.).
The process of retraining and advanced training of the personnel of enterprise begins with an assessment of the organization’s needs in staff training. Organization needs for learning are formed at four levels. Firstly, it is the level of operation (the standards of performance, actual performance of work). Secondly, it is the level of employee (complexity of the work, the actual level of human capital comparing to the level of required human capital). Also, it is the level of departments (need of the department for qualified personnel to ensure the implementation of organization’s objectives, and actual assessment of the potential employees for the department). Finally, it is the organizational level as a whole (need for potential employees in accordance with the strategy of the company and actual assessment of the potential).
The cost-effectiveness and the effectiveness of subsequent performance of employees depend on the quality of the individual assessment of training needs. Three-element analysis system for the individual assessment of training needs includes the analysis of organization (in which departments of organization training is needed), task or labor analysis (what content of training should be), the analysis of employee (who should should be trained, and what training is required). It is important to provide all participants of training with the following settings ‘What is the purpose of education? What is benefit to the organization? What benefit each employee personally achieves from training? How to evaluate the result?’ (Kaufman & Guerra-Lopez 2013).
Assessment of the need for further training and retraining can be conducted at several levels. At the level of organization, the need for further training and retraining of personnel is due to such factors as the development of techniques and technologies that determine the output of new products, services, and new activities, changes in legal and regulatory framework, the development and introduction of new retraining programs, the situation on the market, change in strategy, the creation of a new structure, the introduction of new activities, technological change, the emergence of new jobs etc. At the level of the structural unit, assessment of needs is conducted by the line manager of the unit based on volume of the production program of structural division, the assessments of the professional capacity of their subordinates, determination the volume of defective and wastes products on the fault of employee, the number of cases of violation of technological discipline, damage to equipment and injuries. At the level of the individual worker identification, the need for vocational training is performed on the basis of creating an individual development plan, periodic certifications, and professional career planning (Simons & Richardson 2012).
On the basis of the expert survey data on respondents who are senior managers, middle managers, line managers of large industrial companies, it can be concluded that the majority of managers feel the need and necessity for periodic training of their employees. In this regard, for its implementation, in each company, a certain system or technology training should be designed and operated. The majority of respondents in the survey indicated the need for systematic training of staff of the enterprise. The frequency of employees training depends on the need for the acquisition of new knowledge, information, and skills.
The subject who is aware of such a need becomes the initiator of training. From the analysis of responses of the participants, it can be concluded that in the practice of training the personnel of the companies, the system of appeal of workers to the personnel services in order to make an application for the passage of a certain type of training is not very well developed. Training of employees coming from the head is widespread. Training initiated by the leader can be effective because the leader is the one who is increasingly familiar with the company’s strategic plans. Therefore, the leader can suggest what knowledge, skills, and abilities the staff should have to ensure successful functioning of the company in the competitive environment of the modern market.
The disadvantage is the lack of motivation of employees aimed at effective implementation of initiatives imposed from above, which may result in an extremely formal implementation of the training activities. In order to systematize the collection of individual applications for training, it is advisable to periodically conduct surveys of employees, using the sociological and psychological methods of their development. Respondents also pointed to the strong dependence of actions on training personnel from the financial and material resources of the company because, in times of crisis or unstable periods, executives try to plan organizational expenses carefully.