Effectual Reading Methodology
Effectual Reading Methodology
Studying is a complex process which includes applying of different theories and methods that are the main tools in gaining the best results. It goes without saying that every subject has its own peculiar features. Hence, some special techniques should be implicated in the educational process where the teacher is the one who is responsible for providing an effective and high-quality studying. Consequently, it is necessary for the teacher to have perfect practical as well as theoretical knowledge. The current paper aims at explaining the particular aspects of presenting an effectual reading methodology to my English students.
In order to be a teacher, one has to go through a complex system of preparing where a sufficient theoretical background is the key point. In fact, theory knowledge gives a profound understanding of the subject from its origin. Educational theories provide a solid basis for the successful education and the teacher, accordingly, establishes the connection between the subject and the student. Due to that, he/she should always be aware of all the educational components because a central feature in a tutoring conception relates to the essential teaching skills (Richards & Renandya, 2002). Therefore, theoretical knowledge is an inevitable component of any educational process.
Practical experience is one of the most valuable tools in the teaching practice. To put it differently, the more experienced the teacher is, the better the outcomes are. Moreover, the teacher is responsible for the whole process of gaining and applying the learnt information by the students. Thereupon, personal and practical acquirements are defined as a measurement system of the teachers’ educational level (Ben-Peretz, 1995). In that respect, it is obvious that practical part of the work is the most important one since if an experienced person shows great professional results, they are always the consequence of the numerous trainings and application of the methods.
The theory and practice are the mandatory components of each educational process and the integral parts of the whole concept of studying. To clarify, theory provides the fundamental terms and principles while all the notions, definitions and procedures are thoroughly linked to the practical implementation and such reasoning challenges the common view that these two branches are distinct and conflicting entities in the learning (Ellis& Orchard, 2014). So, we may consider that the mentioned two constituents form the general frame of education and the methodology is a core in that mechanism.
First thing to remember is that foreign language studying always requires a special methodology. It is generally known that in order to learn a foreign language students have to be competent in the four basic comprehensions: speaking, writing, listening, and reading. All of them are impactful and, notably, only through such complex studying, while developing all of these components, the student can have a rewarding result. However, on the other hand, it is individual and depends on the type of the memory the person has. Each of these comprehensions has its own advantages but let us focus our attention on implementing specifically reading as a tool for foreign language mastering.
Reading is a perfect method for studying native as well as a foreign language. It gives the student an opportunity to perceive the world through the imagination as well as it assists in fastening a lasting effect of the certain knowledge in the mind. Namely, reading is useful because it helps to develop and enrich students’ vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, creative thinking, and analyzing ability. For instance, Michael West argued that the ability of his students to read fluently in English was more important than actually speaking in English (Nagaraj, 1996). Reading is vital because people use it everyday and everywhere in order to acquire a new and important information. This comprehension is also an inalienable part of self-studying and self-education as it enables the students to receive the necessary knowledge from the primary source and helps to make one’s own assumptions. Moreover, reading is a compulsory task in learning and teaching students of different age groups as there are the reading texts of the varying levels of difficulty today and because of that the students are able to achieve their objectives systematically.
There exists a wide range of reading methods and each of them has its own peculiarities which help the students to study effectively. To enumerate, there are the reading and translation method, the silent reading method, reading aloud method, task based method, method of commented reading, and critical reading method. Certainly, the teacher can utilize any of the given techniques during the lessons of a foreign language. Nonetheless, he/she has to take into account a number of divergent factors, for example, students’ age and the level of knowledge. It is necessary because the student has to feel comfortable in the learning process and, besides, he/she has to take an active participation in the studying procedures.
Indeed, the age difference is an important issue in studying. The teacher has to prepare diverse reading tasks for the students of the distinct ages. While teaching younger students, it is significant to consider their language specialties. As a rule, the usage of the audio and video tools facilitate the learning process for the small pupils. It can be explained by the fact that in a young age it is easier for children to perceive information in that way. With the help of video and audio lessons, kids learn the alphabet and a basic vocabulary. That is why it is extremely productive to start reading with the aloud reading method because the student learns a correct pronunciation and improves the speed of the reading that is extremely meaningful for the further education. Furthermore, through that way students master the basic language constructions which they unconsciously bear in mind. Equally paramount is the second level of younger learners’ reading education that is called the reading and translation method. Owing to it, the students can practically apply their previously gained knowledge. Moreover, it gives the possibility to check the level of vocabulary knowledge of the student. Henceforth, after the two described methods, the teacher may apply thee commented reading method or task based method with such basic exercises as answers to the questions, “true” or “false” tasks or multiple choice questions.
On the contrary, older students learn the language differently. Their learning process is more censorious and that is why at the beginning it is also more time consuming. To explain, it is expected that older students already have the knowledge regarding all the bases of reading and the teacher has a role of a conductor of the students’ critical thinking. Concerning older students, teacher usually starts with the task based method in order to check their ability to understand the text itself as well as with the silent reading method, which is more preferable. In reality, the teacher applies reading aloud in conjunction with reading-translation method only in the complicated sentences or paragraphs in order to clarify it. Specifically, the method of commented reading helps the students to get to know the different facts about an unknown person, historical event, city or other things that are represented in the text. According to the age preferences, critical reading of the text is more interesting for the older students because they may express their own point of view.
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The level of knowledge is a chief factor in foreign languages learning. That is why it is implied to all the four comprehensions. While teaching reading it is necessary to choose the proper level of the task for students to understand the writing, but there obviously have to be some new and unknown information too. This unfamiliar data possesses certain obstacles and it is very useful for better memorizing. In addition, it is worth mentioning that it is preferable and more helpful for beginners to refer to the paper dictionaries if they find a complicated word while reading because in such a way they make some efforts to find the meaning of the word. The most usual method applied for the students with the lowest level of knowledge is reading and translation method with reading aloud. This can be explained by the fact that it is more technical method and at first students have to master their language skills and only after that they can move to the more perplexed tasks such as analysis of the writing.
Students with a high level of foreign language knowledge have to do more practical and analytical tasks. Usually, the teacher provides such students with the exercises based on the commented reading method and critical reading method. Frequently, such kinds of assignments bring positive effects in the studying process. Performing such tasks students not only monotonously read and translate but also convey their opinions and attitudes to the given information. In particular, students with a high level of knowledge of the foreign language can analyze, compare and contrast different facts and produce the results of their critical reading in a native language as well as in a foreign one.
Measurement of success and failures of the students is a very complicated task. The most important for the teacher is to be objective and treat all the students equally. Truly, the teacher always has to praise the students for their success but never judge them in the class because of their failures. Point often overlooked is that it is better to encourage less knowledgeable students with a good word or a higher evaluation. Talking about older students, they are less sensible and more aware of the real level of their knowledge. Consequently, it is better for the teacher not to be very subjective in measurement of the success or failure during the work applying a certain reading methodology.
To conclude, the methodology of teaching plays an important role in an educational process. It consists of both the theoretical knowledge as well as the practical experiences of the teacher. The methodology of the foreign language studying has its own peculiar features which should be consistently taken into consideration. Among all the language comprehensions, reading is the one that develops students’ imagination, helps to boost vocabulary and improve the critical analysis of the reading text. Nevertheless, the reading methodology should be carefully chosen for the students of the different age and with a different level of the foreign language knowledge. To repeat, methods which provide students with the more practical tasks are preferable for the young students with a low level of English whereas more practical and creative methods are perfect for the high level and older students. The measurement of students’ knowledge skills should be objective. To summarize, all these facts prove that studying is a complex process that includes numerous factors of education.