Article I (Huijts et al., 2013)
The title of the research article by Huijts et al. (2013) is very professional, as it clearly indicates to the readers that the main focus of the paper will be placed on the elderly populations with the state of congestive heart failure (Huijts et al., 2013).
The abstract concisely and effectively describes the aims of the study, the number of methods that were used, and provides a meaningful conclusion that HF severity and its impact on cognitive function of a human body are no less than hypothesized (Huijts et al., 2013).
The problem was easy to identify because the authors indicated it in the title of the paper in a very clear and unambiguous manner. The problem of congestive impairment in the state of heart failure is critically significant for the sphere of nursing because the amount of information regarding interrelation between HF severity and cognitive functions is limited. Information about the key variables and the main study populations is included (Huijts et al., 2013). The literature review consists of more than three dozens of books, research studies, and case studies. The literature review that includes both primary and secondary sources provides a strong basis for this study because the authors had an opportunity to review the previous research observations and assessments about SCI in patients diagnosed with congestive heart failure (Huijts et al., 2013).
In order to safeguard the personal rights and freedoms of every participant, 611 patients were selected voluntarily and were provided with the written consent. This research study has applied several exclusion criteria, as patients with acute coronary syndrome and surgeries did not have an opportunity to participate (Huijts et al., 2013). The population was clearly identified, as only elderly individuals with congestive heart failure participated in the experiment. Patients with CHF were selected through a series of interviews, and participated in three different assessments of cognitive functions (Huijts et al., 2013).
Since the authors planned to measure both how severity of HR influences cognitive functions and the prevalence of SCI in HF populations, each research question is addressed separately. Information about statistical significance and the main findings of the research is presented in several well-developed tables. In addition, there are three figures that express the results of experiments (Huijts et al., 2013).
All of the main findings of the research performed by Huijts et al. (2013) are described and summarized in ‘results and discussion’ section. The authors of the research revealed approximately 10% prevalence of SCI among the elderly populations diagnosed with heart failure (Huijts et al., 2013). Moreover, researchers have analyzed and assessed the previous research studies in this area that indicate higher levels of prevalence of cognitive dysfunctions in patients with HR, as it exceeded 25% (Huijts et al., 2013). However, such a difference may be explained by the fact that previous research studies paid close attention to the less severe forms of cognitive impairments. Further investigations are needed because there is a lack of information about small changes in cognitive functions caused by the progression of HF (Huijts et al., 2013).
Despite the several limitations of the paper, as researchers do not pay attention to mild cognitive impairments, I am confident in content validity of this research study because it relies on the rigorous statistical tests and excludes the subjective forms of measurement. /p>
Article II (Zhao, Yang, Li, Wang, Qin, & Zhang, 2014)
The title of the research presented by Zhao et al. is informative because it indicates that the main emphasis will be placed on digoxin and its dosage that should be prescribed individually to every patient (Zhao et al., 2014).
Abstract is clear and comprehensive because it includes the detailed background information about digoxin and the positive effects of low concentrations of this drug to the patients with congestive heart failure (Zhao et al., 2014).
This problem is important for nursing because it is crucially important to health care professionals to prescribe the different concentrations of this medication. The main research question is directly linked to the efficiency of individual dosage of this frequently prescribed drug to the individuals with HF (Zhao et al., 2014). There is a good match between the main research problem and the methods being applied by the researchers because separation of patients into smaller groups has ensured a greater chance of obtaining more accurate results. The literature review proves the validity and accuracy of the obtained results because it includes the primary and the secondary sources. The key concepts, including serum dioxin concentration and predicted concentration, are presented in a clear, detailed, and professional manner (Zhao et al., 2014).
Despite the existing information about the main exclusion criteria that is included, nothing is stated in this research about the special procedures that were used to safeguard privacy issues. In order to eliminate the possible risks, the researchers clearly recorded all of the available clinical and biochemical information for 72 individuals who participated in the experiment (Zhao et al., 2014). Moreover, they not only paid special attention to such factors as sex and gender, but have also assessed the main risk factors for patients with diabetes, hypertension, and bad habits, especially smoking. Sample population was described in sufficient details, as the authors focused on symptomatic heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction as the main inclusion criteria (Zhao et al., 2014).
According to the information presented in the research study, all statistical analyses were conducted with the help of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Zhao et al., 2014). However, insufficient amount of information is presented about effect, size, and precision of the estimates. The findings are effectively represented with the help of several tables and figures that include basic information about the characteristics of patients, impacts of different digoxin dosage, and other relevant factors (Zhao et al., 2014).
The authors do not review and analyze the previous research results because they included different exclusion criteria. In addition, in previous researches, study populations were small, which might have resulted in significant deviations (Zhao et al., 2014). Moreover, the issue of clinical significance is discussed, as researchers claim that this research will assist health care professionals in calculating the dosage of digoxin on an individual basis (Zhao et al., 2014). In addition, the authors discuss in details the implications of their research study for further researches, and stress on the fact that additional researches with larger numbers of patients of different age groups and across different stages of renal function will prove the validity of previous results (Zhao et al., 2014).
The research study by Zhao et al. (2014) is worth studying because it is organized in a clear and comprehensive manner, and provides valid and reliable content (Zhao et al., 2014). Despite insignificant number of patients, which is the main limitation of the study, this research may be extensively useful for a nursing practice.